“I do not come to school because the teachers do not teach us”, deaf and mute school girl, Pakistan

Today, the International Day of Persons with Disability, Yasmeen H. Somani, Researcher from Aga Khan University, Pakistan, asks, “do you know a child with disabilities?”

Edited by: Dr. McFarlanec

photo credit: whatworks.co.za

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Do you know a child with disabilities? Over five million people in Pakistan have a disability. Many of these people are children, who are frequently kept in homes and removed from play and important interaction with other children. Does our government provide programs for these disabled youth and the parents who care for them? To learn more about these special youth with disabilities, I spoke to disabled youth in Hyderabad, Sindh. I visited 3 schools for blind and deaf and mute disabled youth. The schools were operated under the Director of Social Welfare Department, Government Service Center for Blind School and Government College for Special Education.

I felt the children were deprived of needed teachers and resources for successful study. I talked to boys and girls of 12 to 18 years of age. I learned their lives are very limited to home and school only. They are not included in our neighborhoods and society. They live very isolated lives with limited access to information and knowledge. How can they receive needed education and social services when systems are not in place? I met blind students who learn through brail and are required to appear at a written board exam with sighted students.

A girl who is deaf and mute said, “I do not come to school because the teachers do not teach us”. A boy who is also deaf and mute reported; “my teacher does not understand sign language, so how can he teach me?” Another boy who is blind said “Teachers just sit, listen to students talk, and later blame us for not learning” Despite learning limitations, the disabled youth were happy to go to school as their world is limited to home and school, especially for blind girls. One youth mentioned, “I was happy when I was a child at least I can go play outside my house but now that I’m older, I am not allowed to go outside alone, and I do not have any friends.”

When we hear the word school, we automatically think of friends, books, library, playground, teachers and most important learning to gain knowledge and prepare for a future path. Our disabled children in Pakistan also want to have fond memories of school. They want to learn and develop skills for making a future for themselves. However, the children I spoke with are not being challenged at school. The children report harassment at school, with stones thrown at them, and one child reported being locked in the washroom. The children were not safe at their home. One girl reported being harassed by neighbors when left alone by her parents.

In Pakistan, only 14 percent of persons with disabilities are employed. The remaining disabled persons depend on family members for financial support. The Directorate General of Special Education & Social Welfare has developed institutions for the disabled. These institutions are not sufficient. Disabled children and adults need quality education for skill building for career paths. Teachers of the disabled need capacity building to learn strategies for effectively teaching the disabled. Government schools need application of new technology to mainstream disabled youth to learn and interact with non-disabled youth. All youth in Pakistan deserve schooling to learn and develop to their fullest.

The What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls programme is working to understand the status of disability in lower and middle-income countries, find out more here: https://whatworks.co.za/resources/film-and-audio





The reflection sessions that changed a narrative in Rwanda


Indashyikirwa (Agents for Change) is an intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention project being implemented across seven Districts in the Western, Northern and Eastern provinces of Rwanda. The programme targets both partners of couples through a series of reflection sessions that challenge drivers of gender based violence (GBV) and promote equality.

Ndabaruta Beatrice and Ndayambaje Godefroid are one of the couples that were selected to be a part of the five-month, weekly curriculum.

Beatrice spoke about the difference in her life and relationship before and after participating in the curriculum: “When we got married we didn’t own much, but as time went on, it got worse. We barely had any food in the home because even the little earnings we had my husband spent on alcohol. He always came home late and drunk and he often kicked the door open while hurling insults at me and the children. I became such a miserable person to the extent that I didn’t care whether I took a bath or not, I was not even bothered about body hygiene. I lived in that hopeless situation for seven years”.

The Start of a Transformational Journey
My husband and I were invited to be part of a five-month couple curriculum with the Indashyikirwa Project. When the training started the facilitator introduced my husband and I, together with a group of other selected couples, to a series of dialogue sessions.

These sessions were aimed at triggering self-reflection on our relationships as married couples but all this was but a dream to me. I thought to myself, “this is not for us it’s for the rest of the couples in the room, who are living in harmony but not us”. I asked myself whether it was even possible for me to ever sit down to hold a reasonable conversation with my husband, without him calling me “fool” or telling me that I looked like a “gorilla”, which was the way he often referred to me, he did not value me let alone consider me as his wife.

Every child we had together he despised. When the five-month couple curriculum began I often asked myself “whether this man will ever love me or even talk to me just like the other married couples do.”

Beatrice appreciated the relationship skills development and take-home exercise approach encouraged by the curriculum, and how through trying something new, their relationship slowly changed:

One day the training facilitator gave us a take-home exercise, which required us to talk and reflect on how we can spend quality time together as a couple. It all seemed like a joke to me because at this point even though we were living in the same house, we were both living in separate rooms, and this had been going for about three months and so the idea of us sitting together to talk was a far cry from our situation at home. As we went on with the training he started surprising me with acts of kindness, which implied that he was trying to make an effort to do right by me.

Beatrice also shared the longer-term impacts of the couple’s curriculum on her relationship:

After a number of curriculum sessions, I started to notice a change of heart in my husband, he started taking responsibility for the family needs, like buying clothes for the children and myself. Before this, the entire time we had been married he had never bought the children any clothes. He even went ahead to open up a joint account for us – for the longest time he had denied me access to financial resources. By opening up this account he was giving me the right to access our income. From that day, he started being intentional about helping me with household chores and whenever I was not home he would take care of the children.

Beatrice also shared the positive impacts of the curriculum, especially around making joint decisions, on their household development:

As a result of the training we made the decision to start planning for our family as a couple, we renovated our house to make it more habitable, we also bought a small plot of land. My husband started helping me to cultivate the land which he never did before, we now have a harvest that we never had before in all our seven years of marriage. Ndayambaje shared how he and his mother rarely communicated because she did not approve of his behavior towards his wife.

“I didn’t want to heed her advice, and I never visited her but now we talk and she also testifies to the change she sees in me and in my relationship with my wife and family.”

He noted that as a result of the curriculum, he now has a better relationship with his wife and family:

“I am now accepted in my neighborhood, before the training I was known as a rebellious person not only by my neighbors but also by the Local Authorities, now everyone wants to know what caused the sudden change. I now feel a sense of belonging in my community and in my own family as a result of my individual change. I am now a respected man in my community and my family’s well-being has been boosted, thanks to the Indashyikirwa project.”

My name is Rachel Kwizera, I have been working with CARE for the last three years as a Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator for the Indashyikirwa Project. This story is just one of the many other amazing stories that I have witnessed from a number of couples who testify to the intentional changes they made as couples as result of being part of the Couples Curriculum. Several times, these couples have acknowledged that being aware of “Power and Power Use” has changed their entire outlook on how they treat each other as couples, towards a more respectful and positive manner.

The Indashyikirwa Footprint: Personal reflections from working with an intimate partner violence programme in Rwanda

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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is still a persistent reality for many women in Rwanda and this has physical and emotional consequences, which impacts all of us as a community.  Indashyikirwa is an IPV prevention program being implemented by CARE International Rwanda, Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN) and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC) in Rwanda, and funded by DFID-Rwanda. Indashyikirwa is being evaluated externally as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls Programme. As we enter into the last phase and completion of Indashyikirwa, I would like to share my personal takeaways from this four-year program.

My name is Annette N. Mukiga. As the project coordinator of the RWN activities, Indashyikirwa has created a huge shift in my understanding and perception of Gender Based Violence (GBV) programming in the following ways: –

  1. The first Indashyikirwa Baby: Importance of Building Personal Relationships

I had my now 2.6 year old baby as we were entering the program implementation phase and I remember colleagues from the project coming to visit and welcome the 1st “Indashyikirwa baby”. For me, it was a reaffirmation of the trainings we had and emphasized the need to build and invest in personal relationships with the community members we would be working with, such as the Women’s Space Facilitators and Community Activists.

  1. Personal Reflection: It starts with me

Before Indashyikirwa, my experience with prevention of GBV was working with communities with the implied assumption that this is not my problem, but I am rather going to assist other people to overcome their problems. With Indashyikirwa, the process encouraged continuous personal reflection as an integral part of the change that we wanted to see. I think this is key for working to change social norms; we need to constantly reflect on our own personal attitudes and behaviours, and how we are also influenced by societal norms.

  1. Talking About Triggers instead of Causes of GBV

The Indashykirwa program helped me to learn about triggers, rather than essentializing causes of GBV. For instance, the program emphasizes how power imbalances between men and women, poverty and alcohol abuse are not necessarily causes (i.e. not all people in these circumstances will resort to GBV) but can be triggers or contributing factors of GBV. With this lens, we need to come up with ways and tools of managing these triggers, which was a key focus of the Indashyikirwa program.

  1. Challenging Social Norms: Change is a process

Reflecting on the harmful social norms that we need to change and patriarchy as a system that needs to be eliminated (my personal hope as a feminist), I recognize that there are low hanging fruit (quick wins) and high hanging fruits, which is why we need different strategies to promote positive and sustainable change. As we began the program, I remember the heated and controversial debates around the possibility of a household being headed by both spouses and a colleague having issues with the idea of her husband carrying a child on his back. Throughout the program, many of us as staff developed different attitudes towards gendered norms, encouraged through the participatory approach of the programme trainings and activism activities. The fact that we were even questioning, discussing and visioning a different way of doing things is a powerful step towards changing the norms that we know.

  1. Research and Knowledge Generation: Integral to informing programming

The Indashykirwa program was a first for me in relation to working in partnership with a research team responsible for evaluating the project. My previous experience had been evaluators coming as external experts to impress upon the results of our work. At first, the research was an intimidating experience but as we engaged through mutual respect as partners, with capacity building and regular feedback of the data from both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation activities, I realized the importance of this kind of study to inform the quality and impact of our work. With this understanding and appreciation, I personally cannot look at evaluation research the same way; I am born again. The critical need for research and development practitioners to work in partnership to show what works and how it works cannot be ignored. I would like to call upon funding partners to recognize this mutual reinforcement, support and encourage such collaborations.

  1. Funding Flexibility: Value Addition for Impact

I have experienced many firsts with Indashyikirwa including a 9-month inception period for preparing the ground for the project implementation including; developing the intervention, pretesting of curricula and staff training. Flexibility of funding also allowed for new activities to address the gaps and challenges identified from the monitoring and evaluation research data. For long term projects, especially those piloting programmes as was the case with Indashyikirwa, this is very important, as it enhances the overall quality of the program and its impact. My negotiation agenda with funding partners in the future will definitely take this into consideration.

As we look to the future of Indashyikirwa as a program as well as to prevent and respond to GBV broadly, I hope that the learning we have gained from this program continues to inform us going forward. La Lutte Continua.




A day in the life Miriam’s Diary: Through the eyes of a young woman giving others a helping hand

Read about an ordinary day for an extraordinary woman living in one of the world’s largest refugee camps.

February 26, 2018

My name is Miriam. I was born in Somalia. My family fled the war in 1992 when I was one year old, and I have lived in Dadaab refugee camp—one of the largest in the world—since then.

Now, I work for the International Rescue Committee. Every day, I work to protect women and girls from violence.

6 am

The first thing I do is pray. I live with my mother. I make us both breakfast and then clean our home. My mother has always supported me. She encouraged my education as a young girl and is just so happy watching me go off to work every day.

7.30 am

I set off for the women’s support centre. It’s quite a long walk and sometimes I get harassed on the street. Some people in the community think that I am wasting my time, that I should just get married. But I know others, including many young girls, look up to me as a role model.

8 am

The team gathers outside under the trees for a daily meeting to discuss any challenges we have encountered in our work and ask each other for advice. Then I sit outside the centre and wait for women to arrive. I want mine to be the first face they see — someone smiling and welcoming them.

Women and girls come to the centre for many different reasons; the camp is not an easy place to live. There is a lot of domestic violence, early or forced marriages, girls are denied education, and there is sexual assault.

When a woman arrives I take her into a private room and ask her about her situation. If she is a survivor of sexual violence, I ask if she is willing to see a doctor and then immediately call them. We have a shortage of medical staff so it can be hours until someone arrives. Sometimes I end up staying with a survivor into the evening waiting for a medical exam.

12:30 pm

When the doctor arrives, I explain everything that is happening, act as a translator and assist as the doctor performs the exam and gives her treatments, including to prevent HIV.

If she wants her case to be forwarded to the police, I help gather evidence, such as her clothes, and find her new, comfortable clothing. I reassure her that this is not her fault and that she is not alone, that I will be here to support her and listen.

4 pm

I start the walk home. To be honest, it is not an easy time of the day – my head is filled with the stories and experiences of the women I have seen and their suffering. It is heavy. When I get home, I prepare supper for my mother and myself. Sometimes I read – I love reading the news and fiction – but normally I try to get to sleep as early as possible.

I’m proud of what I do. Women come to see us traumatised, and scared, and sobbing. They leave knowing that they will be ok and that there are people who will help them and support them.

Violence against women and girls exists all over the world – not just in Somalia, not just here in Dadaab. If I go back to Somalia I want to continue to educate people and continue to protect women and girls. They are the backbone of humanity. The world cannot become beautiful without their leadership.

Miriam is a community worker working with the IRC’s Women’s Protection and Empowerment team to help women and girls who have experienced violence in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. She is also a refugee.

Miriam’s name has been changed to protect her identity. These are her words.

Illustrations by Matt Murphy.

The What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict and Humanitarian Crises research programme, funded by the UK Government’s Department for International Development, is building evidence on how to prevent and respond to violence against women and girls in fragile and conflict settings. As part of its recent project in Dadaab, refugee community workers like Miriam were interviewed to understand the specific risks, challenges, opportunities and rewards experienced by refugees working to change their own communities.

Working with couples to address intimate partner violence: Lessons from Rwanda


Jean Felix Havumiragira and Kristina Uwamahoro, who participated in the couples curriculum in Rwanda

Research shows that addressing intimate partner violence (IPV) requires working at society, community, household and individual levels to promote relationships built on respect, equality and peace. This blog shares the emerging learnings of working specifically with couples to address IPV in the context of Rwanda and speaks to the findings of the qualitative research conducted by Dr Erin Stern from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (read more in this article by Dr Erin Stern and Ritha Nyiratunga).

The Indashykirwa programme, which is funded by UK aid and implemented by CARE, the Rwanda Women’s Network and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC) in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, has been an innovative partnership bringing together practitioners and researchers to better understand what works to address IPV. Indashyikirwa consists of a package of interventions designed to work at individual, family and community levels to shift attitudes, practices and social norms that perpetuate gender inequality and GBV. So what have we learned so far about working with couples to address intimate partner violence?

What couples valued in the curriculum

The qualitative research undertaken with couples before, after the curriculum and one year later showed that the majority of couples immensely valued the Indashyikirwa couples curriculum. The retention and participation rate has been consistently high with strong commitment from both partners in a couple to attend three-hour sessions on a weekly basis for five months.

Couples appreciated being able to go through the curriculum with their respective partners. For some of the couples, the programme offered a rare opportunity to freely express themselves and share what they intimately felt about certain issues. The different notions of power (power over, with, to and within) and specifically the link between ‘power over’ and different forms of violence was an important step in couples understanding IPV. Some couples were unaware that they were living in violent relationships. As one woman said: “I thought that the way my husband talked to me was the way all husbands talked. When I started attending the couples’ training through the Indashyikirwa project, I realised I was experiencing gender-based violence.”

Awareness-raising was supported by skills-building sessions where couples learned and practised certain areas to support non-violent relationships, such as how to provide constructive communication and criticism or resolve conflicts within their relationship.

What couples resisted

Where the curriculum challenged privileges of men as sole decision-makers and breadwinners, resistance especially from men was noticeable during the sessions. As one field officer noted: “Men were asking negatively, ‘What is this? They want women to be above us.’ But after every single session, you see men start to be open and realise how they were using power over, they thought it was their right as men to give directions to their families, go out and drink, do whatever they want, and come home late.”

Consideration of men’s sexual entitlement in relationships/marriage was also initially resisted by many participants. The idea that women could initiate sex was for many taboo and uncomfortable. Those discussions were however essential to challenging entrenched ideas and norms about couples’ dynamics that ultimately were underpinning unequal power relations. Couples were encouraged to adopt different behaviours at home using some of the newly acquired skills.

What the process of change looked like

After some time, changes were noticeable with couples embracing new roles within the household. Couples reported through the qualitative interviews, including a year after the curriculum, changes around household and property decisions, chores at home, sex or quality time spent together. The solidarity and closeness created among couples within each session and with the RWAMREC facilitators was also an important factor to encourage and support this process of change. The reflective and participatory approach of the curriculum and the take-home activities encouraged couples to try new ways of interacting and engaging with each other.

An unexpected change has been the number of couples trained who had been living together and decided to legally marry. Legal marriage in Rwanda provides greater status to women and gives women legal rights that they are not otherwise guaranteed to access, such as to property. This finding is very important in better understanding risk and protective factors for IPV.

Initial recommendations                

  1. This research, conducted as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls programme, indicates that it is possible to conduct research with couples on IPV in an ethical manner. It also demonstrates the added value of interviewing couples over time to get their insights into what works well for transforming relationships and reducing IPV. Research under this intervention has provided invaluable findings that have contributed to better understanding and refining the intervention in a way that wouldn’t have been possible with only an impact evaluation.


  1. The Indashyikirwa couples approach speaks to the effectiveness of engaging both partners in a heterosexual couple at the same time. Research suggests that working with heterosexual couples is more effective to change relationships and reduce IPV than engaging men and women separately.


  1. Deconstructing the concept of power was essential in couples’ understanding of violence, especially the link between negative use of power (power over) and different forms of IPV (economic, emotional, physical, sexual). The concept of positive power (power within, to and with) was also inspiring for couples to address IPV in their communities, and to strengthen especially women’s self-confidence.


  1. Legal marriage was identified as a factor influencing women’s access to rights and as a potential protective factor for IPV. Informal marriage could increase the risk of IPV while limiting institutional responses to violence experienced by women. This reinforces the importance of taking an intersectional lens when working with women to reduce IPV. Further evidence on this critical issue is available in this paper Intersectionalities of marital status and women’s risk and protective factors for IPIV.


Read more: A critical aspect of the Indashyikirwa programme is safe spaces for women, which were established to help women feel comfortable discussing IPV and gender inequality, help educate women about their rights, and refer or accompany women for health, social or criminal justice services. Read Eugenia’s story on the What Works website to find out more about the impact of the women’s safe spaces.




It’s not just the women that want to stop Intimate Partner Violence in Zambia, it’s the men too

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Saphira Mulemba, on Violence Alcohol Treatment Zambia (VATU)

VATU means ‘ours’ in Nyanja, one of the main local languages spoken in Zambia. This programme is for our Zambian families, in fact, all families who live in similar settings, as violence against women and children is a daily reality for many in Zambia.

No single “risk factor” can explain why some individuals behave violently towards women or children or why violence against women and girls appears to be more prevalent in certain communities than in others, however, it is clear that alcohol abuse is a significant contributor. Alcohol can be both a cause and a consequence of interpersonal violence. My name is Saphira Mulemba and I am the Project Manager on the What Works project in Zambia. Our intervention programme, the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), is trying to reduce and prevent the perpetration and experience of interpersonal violence in part by addressing alcohol use problems in Zambia. CETA addresses a wide range of mental and behavioural health problems that affect the family dynamics surrounding violence exposure (e.g., depression, anxiety, trauma, behavioural problems, and substance abuse).

Our CETA programme involves locally trained counsellors conducting weekly group or individual therapy sessions with their clients. Sessions are typically 1-2 hours in length and treatment lasts for 8-12 weeks. The clients in our study are families living in three peri-urban communities in Lusaka. The family group that we work with consists of three individuals: an adult woman, her husband or partner, and one identified child (boys and girls, ages 8-17). All individuals of a family received CETA if randomized to this study arm. Although we won’t know the true effectiveness of CETA until the end of the study, counsellors on our team have reported significant positive feedback from their male clients. For example, one male client reported that “This programme has helped me realize that I need not to force my wife to have sex but instead talk to her about it”. Men who have struggled with alcohol use problems have informed their counsellors about positive changes in their relationships with their wives and how their overall family dynamics have dramatically improved. They have also reported that they feel healthier, are able to go to work more consistently, and have even told their friends and neighbours who are experiencing similar alcohol problems about the benefits of our CETA programme.

Conversely, men enrolled in our study who have not yet received CETA have expressed to our team the need for services to help not only themselves but their family as well. We are encouraged by the response to our programme by men in the community and believe that engagement of the entire family unit in CETA increases the likelihood that alcohol use and interpersonal violence will decrease.

What the Stepping Stones Creating futures intervention meant to women

Casper leading group discussion

by Nolwazi Ntini

As the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention data collection draws to a close for the year, I would like to reflect on the experiences of some of the women who attended the intervention workshops. The intervention, funded by the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls Global Programme via UKAID, sought to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) and improve livelihoods amongst youth aged 18- 30 years living in urban informal settlements, in Durban, South Africa. By conducting participatory peer-led workshops, participants met twice a week and discussed different issues pertaining to their lives, under the guidance of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures combined curriculum. Urban informal settlements are often characterized by high prevalence of violence. At baseline, 65% of women reported having experienced IPV in the past 12 months. This blog highlights reflections from conversations with women who attended the intervention and were part of the qualitative research.

When I asked women about their thoughts and feelings about participating in the intervention, they responded positively to the experience and shared their favorite and most memorable sessions. For instance, the mentioned “River of Grief” as a favourite yet, difficult session for the women, because it gave them an opportunity to share their life stories. The aim of this particular session was to assist participants to talk about past trauma and grief and the different ways to process feelings of loss. Through the narration of their experiences, participants were able to identify similarities between their own stories, and those of other women, making them feel less alone and isolated.

Another session women enjoyed was the “menstrual cycle”. Women found learning about how their bodies work, empowering, as for some they had typically learned this only in limited ways at school. For others, it was also important to learn about how to conceive children, which gave them some ability to start making decisions about their reproductive choices.

In addition to the topics discussed in the workshops, the women also always looked forward to attending sessions as it was something different from their daily routines. They described their typical days as uneventful; where they mainly did house chores, looked after family members and occasionally went out to look for work, with limited interaction with people who are not kin, close friends or partners. The chance to be somewhere where they did not have to invest a lot of personal effort or labour, and could engage with different people about topics of importance to them, was just as important as what they were ‘learning’.

The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention provided an opportunity for the women to build, expand and strengthen their networks. However, the spaces convened were not always harmonious and problem free. In a context of socio-economic scarcity such as urban informal settlements, there was high competition for employment opportunities and intimate partners; such tensions and fights would often spill over into the workshops and therefore had to be resolved in them.

Despite the challenges, women claimed the only thing they would change about the intervention would be to add more sessions, as they felt the standard 21 sessions were not enough; or have more sessions but targeting different people in the communities, such as the elderly or young children. The sessions functioned in multiple ways for women, moving beyond simple learning spaces to ones where they could start to build social relationships, reduce isolation and start to think about their lives in different ways.

Nolwazi Ntini is an ethnographer and fieldwork co-ordinator within the Gender Equality and Health Programme, HEARD


Trauma, men and mental health

Andrew Gibbs on men and intimate partner violence in informal settlements in South Africa

Participant acting a scene

Men’s use of violence against women is driven by gender inequalities, and men’s attempts to maintain power over women. Yet men also experience exceedingly high levels of trauma themselves. Despite people connecting these two for many years and suggesting that men’s experiences of trauma increase their use of violence against women, research on this has remained qualitative. In a new, exploratory, analysis the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures [1]team use quantitative data to unpick how men’s experiences of trauma shape and drive their use of violence.

Working in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa, the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures team were acutely aware of the generalized high levels of violence that young women and men experience in their daily lives. The study found that men living in urban informal settlements do experience a high level of trauma in their lives: 25% of men in the study reported witnessing the murder of a family member of friend, 43% had witnessed an armed attack, and just over half (52%) had been robbed at knife or gunpoint.

But how does this impact on their use of violence against women? We used structural equation modeling to explore the pathways through which these experiences of trauma led to increased IPV perpetration. We found three pathways for this relationship. First, there is a direct relationship between these two factors – men who experience trauma are more likely to use violence. Second, men’s gender inequitable masculinities are incredibly important in their perpetration of violence, the experience of trauma led to men holding more inequitable masculinities and this then led to greater use of violence. Third, men who experienced trauma had greater mental health challenges, including depression and use of alcohol. These mental health challenges increased men’s perpetration of violence.

So what does this mean? First, men’s gender inequitable masculinities remain central to any analysis of men’s use of violence. The analysis clearly demonstrated that this is an important driver of violence. Second, the importance of traumatic experiences cannot be discounted in understanding men’s use of violence. This is not to justify violence at all, but to recognize that violence begets violence, and an important component of working to reduce violence against women, must be to reduce the overall levels of violence and trauma within any community. Finally, interventions working to reduce men’s use of violence need to think about how to work on improving men’s mental health and reducing their use of alcohol.

Overall, working to reduce IPV by men needs to think about the multi-level components driving IPV. Transforming men’s gender norms needs to be the main component of effective prevention interventions, but these need to be combined with wider interventions to reduce overall levels of community violence and support men’s mental health.

[1] Stepping Stones and Creating Futures is a programme which aims to decrease the rate of intimate partner violence in urban informal settlements in South Africa via interactive and participatory peer-led sessions in which participants reflect on gender norms, conflict in relationships and developing livelihoods strategies.


Why Intimate Partner Violence Is Your Business

By Marat Yu

The recent surfacing of numerous sexual harassment allegations—including multiple allegations of sexual harassment in the workplace—have demonstrated how much work remains to be done to create genuinely inclusive workplace around the world. Business can no longer be in any doubt about its duty to stamp out violence and harassment at work.

However, if there is another learning from the #MeToo movement, it is that violence knows no borders. It occurs at work, on the way to and from work, and at home, and the impact spills over from one aspect of life to the other. Companies have a clear interest in ensuring a violence-free workplace, and for a range of reasons—including the importance of looking after your employees—business must consider how it can go beyond the workplace to tackle violence in the domestic sphere.

International and local instruments increasingly identify employers as important stakeholders to address Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Coinciding with the Governing Body of the International Labour Organization (ILO) deciding to place a standard-setting item on “Violence against Women and Men in the World of Work” on the agenda of the 107th Session of the International Labour Conference, a tripartite meeting of experts concluded that “domestic violence and other forms of violence and harassment are relevant to the world of work when they impact the workplace.” In another recent development, China enacted its first Domestic Violence Act in March 2016, which includes provisions that require employers to act against domestic violence through measures such as providing assistance to victims.

Furthermore, working to tackle violence against women makes business sense: IPV can have negative impacts on workers’ productivity. Emerging research suggests that domestic violence can cause absenteeism because of stress, injuries, or ill-health; victims also have difficulty concentrating at work, which results in poor performance. An IFC study in Papua New Guinea calculated that staff lost 11 work days per year to gender-based violence, costing the companies 3-9 percent of payroll. Research from UN Women indicates that women workers in Vietnam who suffered IPV earned 35 percent less than those not experiencing such violence. There is a significant cost to business inaction.

Business can take a leading role on tackling IPV in several ways:

  • Understand the root causes, raise awareness, and create the business case for intervention. Business can commission or conduct research to understand the root causes of gender inequality and violence. One example of this is the partnership between Diageo and CAREto promote women’s empowerment in the agricultural and hospitality value chain. Business can also clarify laws and regulations on the responsibilities of employers in relation to IPV. A costing study of the economic and social cost of IPV can help generate internal buy-in, which in turn supports investment decisions.
  • Leverage the workplace as an engine of positive social change.The workplace can be a powerful space to shape attitudes and behaviors, as well as to create positive role models. Workers—men and women—will be less willing to accept violence at home and in their communities if they work in a respectful environment. Particularly, business should engage with men in company policy dialogue and program interventions, especially in the context of adverse social norms toward women. Implementing gender policies and programs without engaging men could create a perception of male disadvantage, leading to backlash against women. BSR works to engage men through HERrespect, supported by DFID’s What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls, while programs such as MenCare and Program H are other good examples of male engagement in program development.
  • Facilitate access to services and opportunities for victims and enhance the response mechanism.Business can facilitate access to essential services such as hotlines, counseling, legal aid, and housing—as Kering demonstrates—for IPV survivors. Business can also create economic opportunities for victims, as Sodexo is doing. Effective redressal mechanisms are traditionally a government’s responsibility, but initiatives such as Avon Foundation’s Justice Institute could support the strengthening of the justice system.
  • Campaign against violence.Companies can promote positive concepts of masculinity through campaigns or design products to provide direct support to women who seek help. The 16 Days of Activism campaign and others such as NO MORE provide a good opportunity for business to speak up against IPV.

It’s time for companies to be bold. That means adopting a comprehensive strategy on violence in the workplace, which companies have the power to eliminate, as well as helping to change norms and tackle social acceptance of violence beyond the workplace. Whether through raising its voice or protecting and supporting survivors, business has a key role to play in addressing the systemic issue of violence against women in every sphere.




This blog was originally posted at bsr.org.


Working as a social mobilizer has transformed my life: Jalimaya’s story

IMG_0511For the last three years, I have been working as a Social Mobilizer in Bhimapokhara Youth Club (BYC), for the One Community; One Family Project in Baglung, Nepal. I have witnessed first-hand, the positive impact that the work I have done has had on the communities with whom I have lived. I pride myself on being a true agent of change.  I feel positive when I interact with people and share real-life experiences helping them in clarifying various gender-based violence issues (GBV), of which they are often unaware. These include referrals available within the district for GBV survivors, information about the different forms of violence, maintaining trust and confidentiality and so on. Moreover, I encouraged the community to take the initiative in bringing a positive change within themselves as well as in their family.

My role working as a Social Mobilizer for the One Community; One Family Project run by VSO Nepal and BYC Baglung, which forms part of the UKAID funded global initiative, What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls has brought me much joy.

“I still recall those days where I used to hide behind others so that I wouldn’t be pointed out to share my opinions during any workshops. I felt nervous and experienced stage fright which made me hesitant to face even a moderate crowd”.

Participating in the project, I was afforded the opportunity to enhance my communication, leadership and writing skills. All these improvements are a result of the rigorous effort put in over a period of time, which has been wisely invested in training all the social mobilizers. And as a result, we are much better at implementing the interventions.

“As a result of being associated with the project, I have successfully addressed my stage-phobia and I no longer feel uncomfortable or nervous about expressing my opinions, as well as constructive arguments in any meetings or programs that I’m involved.”

After the successful completion of all the interventions, I am delighted to see young married women starting their selected Income Generating Activities (IGA) and committing to leading a dignified life.

“I have been able to witness harmony and mutual support among family members and often observed them strive and pave their paths towards commercialization of IGA, which can help women to be empowered economically in the future.”

Women’s independence and empowerment will undoubtedly uplift their status as well as deter domestic violence against women and girls in Nepal.

All of the insights have been shared by Jalimaya Thapa, working as a Social Mobilizer for One Community One Family Project in Bhimapokahra Youth Club ( BYC) Baglung. Neeta Gurung is acknowledged for translating Jalimaya’s story.